That document can be treated as an onboarding into creating and maintaining documentation in projects developed by Dasharo Team. It is a set of general rules and tips that you should have in mind while writing guides to any projects in Dasharo repositories.
Table of content
- Make a plan - before starting a new document, you should know how it will look. It is good to prepare a table of content first, and then fill up planned chapters.
- Read twice before publish - everyone make mistakes. Before committing your changes, it is good to read this again and make sure that you do not make any typos, a dump of commands output is correct, or there are no other mistakes.
- Goal of document - Documentation is not written for everyone. Some documents contain only a list of commands with minor descriptions, some of them were created to describe research results, and others may be written for non-technical persons with a huge amount of data that are obvious and unnecessary to read by developers. Because of that, you should always know for who you are writing that document - it may be developers, testers, or non-technical management.
- Hierarchy of information - most important information should always be on top of the document. We should start with the title, short description, and table of contexts. The rest of the chapters should start with the most important one.
- 30/90 rule - It is good to ask your reporter or someone else to do a quick review where approx 30% of the work was done. At this moment, you probably have prepared the initial draft of the document with a table of content and some remarks about content in planned chapters. The second review should be done when 90% of the work is finished, and the document is almost done. With that workflow, you can make sure that you are on the same page with a reporter.
- Existing resources - We should not duplicate content that was previously described in another document. Some steps or explanations are related to a few documents, and it is not necessary to write the same again. It is good to use references to existing documents (like hyperlinks) - because of that, updating and maintenance of documentation are easier because the change in one document is related to several others. Also, if you see that a related document is outdated, it will be a much better choice to review and update them instead of writing another new one from scratch.
- Maintenance - documentation may be outdated after a few changes. We should keep that in mind and prepare an updated schedule. One of the ideas is to mark related documents in every pull request with technical changes. Of course, the best solution is to improve documentation with every change in code/architecture, but it is not always possible due to deadlines or lack of time. Marking documents to update in the future allows us to do that on better occasions - and we prevent situations where the reader must inform us that the documentation is highly outdated - or even useless.
- Archive - Projects are changing, and some topics from the past are not existing now. If the document describes the working of a non-existing mechanism, we should move it to the special folder with archived content. We can go back to that solution in the future, but it must be moved out to as not to mislead the reader.
Good documentation should be written in one of four modes. It can be a tutorial, how-to guide, technical reference, or explanation. These modes were proposed by Diataxis framework, and we want to follow that method in the future. Generally:
- Tutorials are learning-oriented, and their purpose is to take the reader by the hand through a series of steps to complete a project of some kind. It may be a getting started guide, end2end process, or preparing the working environment.
- How-to-guides should be written as a step list that is required to solve the problem. They are goal-oriented, which is the main difference between tutorials: how-to guides lead to solving some problems and are not focused on the learning experience. For example, building system images or modifying boot parameters.
- Reference guides are technical descriptions, and it is information-oriented. It is only information about some technical thing without an explanation of it in the larger context. A good example of that is a requirement list, description of functions or variables used in the program, or list of supported platforms.
- Explanation is a discussion focused on the understanding of some topic, like boot flow, description of specific communication protocol, or device provisioning. That document should explain the subject, not instruct how to do something.
We should not create documents that are not related to these modes.
- grammarly.com - online writing assistant who can improve your grammar and make the document clear. A premium account is a very useful option, but it is not a must. Core functionalities are available for free. It is highly recommended to use the Grammarly tool before committing changes.
- hemingwayapp.com - make your writing clear. Sometimes it catches things that are not detected by Grammarly.
- draw.io - we use that to prepare diagrams.
- paste.dasharo.com - pastebin alternative hosted by Dasharo.
- asciinema.org - free and open-source solution for recording terminal sessions. Sometimes - especially in more complex cases, it is good to present command sequences in this way.
General rules of formatting documents:
- Use markdown preview to verify that document is rendering correctly. That feature is available in VS code, Github/Gitlab web IDE, and other tools.
- Line with code should not have more than 80 characters. To follow that rule, it is good to set the line at width 80 in your IDE. Here is how to do it in VS code.
We also maintain the repository Dasharo/dev-tools-configs with editors configs used by our community. Feel free to create PR with your configuration - you can give your proposition to improve existing settings or create configs for editors that don't exist yet in our repository. A properly configurated editor simplifies correct formatting.
We use PlantUML for creating diagrams. To install PlantUML, run the following command in your terminal:
sudo dnf install plantuml
Now, install the PlantUML plugin in Visual Studio Code. You can do this in VS
Code by pressing
p and type in
ext install plantuml.
Create new files in the
/uml folder of the docs repository. Remember to
commit them along with other files when making changes.
To show a preview of a
.uml file, open it in the editor and press
to open a preview to the side. The preview will be automatically updated when
you save the
To export a diagram to a
.png file, when you're done making changes, press
P and type in
plantuml export current diagram. As you
type, the option to export will be autocompleted for you. Press Enter and
png - or any other file format you may need. Exported files are saved
For more information on the UML language and PlantUML, see the following links: